A Touchscreen is an electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. Touchscreens can also sense other passive objects, such as a stylus(A Pointed nail for easier typing). The touch screen is one of the easiest to use of all computer interfaces, which allows users to navigate a computer system by touching icons or links on the screen. Touchscreens are common in devices such as game consoles, all-in-one computers, tablet computers, and smartphones.Widely used on ATM machines, retail point-of-sale terminals, car navigation systems, medical monitors and industrial control panels.
The popularity of smartphones, tablet computers and many types of information appliances is driving the demand and acceptance of common touchscreens for portable and functional electronics. With a display of a simple smooth surface, and direct interaction without any hardware (keyboard or mouse) between the user and content, fewer accessories are required.
History of Touch Screen Technology –
- It is considered that the first touch screen invented by E.A. Johnson at the Royal Radar Establishment, Malvern, UK, around 1965 – 1967. The inventor published a full description of touch screen technology on capacitive touch screens for air traffic control in an article published in 1968.
- In 1971, a “touch sensor” was developed by Doctor Sam Hurst (founder of Elographics) this sensor called the “Elograph” was secured by The University of Kentucky Research Foundation. The “Elograph” was not transparent like modern touch screens, however, it was a significant milestone in touch screen technology.
- In 1974, the first true touch screen(resistive touch screen )containing a transparent surface came on the panorama developed by American inventor G Samuel Hurst . In 1977, Elographics developed and patented a resistive touch screen technology, the most popular touch screen technology in use today.
- In 1977, Siemens Corporation financed an effort by Elographics to produce the first curved glass touch sensor interface, which became the first device to have the name “touch screen” attached to it. On February 24, 1994, the company officially changed its name from Elographics to Elo TouchSystems.
- In 1983, the computer manufacturing company, Hewlett-Packard introduced the HP-150, a home computer with touch screen technology. The HP-150 had a built in grid of infrared beams across the front of the monitor which detected finger movements. However, the infrared sensors would collect dust and require frequent cleanings. Similar to the PLATO IV system, the touch technology used employed infrared transmitters and receivers mounted around the bezel of its 9″ Sony Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), which detected the position of any non-transparent object on the screen.
- The nineties introduced smart phones and handhelds with touch screen technology. In 1993, Apple released the Newton PDA, equipped with handwriting recognition; and IBM released the first smart phone called Simon, which featured a calendar, note pad, and fax function, and a touch screen interface that allowed users to dial phone numbers. In 1996, Palm entered the PDA market and advanced touch screen technology with its Pilot series.
- In 2002, Microsoft introduced the Windows XP Tablet edition and started its entry into touch technology. In 2007, Apple introduced the king of smart phones, the iPhone, with nothing but touch screen technology. Touchscreens would not be popularly used for video games until the release of the Nintendo DS in 2004. Until recently, most consumer touchscreens could only sense one point of contact at a time, and few have had the capability to sense how hard one is touching. This has changed with the commercialization of multi-touch technology